Pc 61 bmtio x with different spinspeeds of the tio x solution. Pss are found in numerous applications due to their conducting properties. Pcbm bulkheterojunction increases pce from a baseline of. The nature of inplane skeleton raman modes of p3ht and. We fabricated a poly3hexylthiophene p3ht and 6,6phenylc61butyric acid methyl ester pc 61 bm organic photovoltaic cells opcs using tio x interfacial layer. Funding from the sloan foundation and the photovoltaics program at the office. Phd program in materials science and engineering, norfolk state university, 555 park. Silicon nanoparticles doped poly3hexylthiophene and 6,6phenyl c61butyric acid methyl ester blends p3ht. Pcbm has reported an efficiency as high as 5%, which is unusual in the organic cell material. Observing interfacial and charge transfer states with surface photovoltage spectroscopy frank e.
Spectroscopic information allows the construction of energy band diagrams that are used to study organic heterojunctions. Reflections that are characteristic of p3ht and pcbm have been labeled for clarity. Pcbm absorption spectra were found to be blue shifted by 7 nm in films subjected to heat treatment at 160 c and 180 c. Energy level alignment of poly 3hexylthiophene 6,6. Apply pedot to the active region of the device the middle two centimeters without touching the end of the syringe to the surface of the substrate. The materials are deposited subsequently from the same solvent chlorobenzene. By adding a different band gap polymer here, pcbm, to base polymer p3ht, the organic nature of p3ht is distorted and the dissociation of free electrons is promoted.
Pcb was first written by thomas nau for an atari st in 1990 and ported to unix and x11 in 1994. With temdiffraction, the same trend was observed as with xrd. The bulk powder form of pristine p3ht and pcbm kintec company of china were analyzed separately using xrd, ftir spectroscopy, and hrtem microscopy. Pcbm films for opv applications samuele lilliua,b, mejd alsaria, marcus s. The optical absorption and xray diffraction xrd characterizations show that thermal annealing significantly lengthens the effective conjugation of p3ht, leading to effective phase separation with a large interfacial area between p3ht and pcbm. Fastscan unlimited potential afm fastscan afm overview. Solution number nps amount p3ht % pcbm % nps % 1 au 80nm 1ml 62.
Grazing incidence xray diffraction gixrd measurements were performed at the xmas beamline esrf, grenoble, with a beam energy of 10 kev and a mar sx165 2d detector images size q xy 2 a1, q z 2 a1 5, with the cardiff annealing chamber 58. For the pristine p3ht film, we observed the p3ht 010 peak caused by stacking of the thiophene rings in both profiles of asdeposited and annealed samples. A large difference between the profiles of p3ht and p3ht. The layer acts as a hole transporter in organic light emitting diodes oleds and organic photovoltaic devices opvs 6, 7, which have. Correlating the scattered intensities of p3ht and pcbm to the. Mar 09, 2011 tutorial of the software for grazing incidence xray diffraction gixrd analysis described in dynamics of crystallization and disorder during annealing of p3ht.
Enhanced crystallinity and film retention of p3ht thin. Xray diffraction spectra were taken from various asproduced and annealed blends. Pcbm films and was attributed to the edgeon arrangement of. Department of chemistry, and department of chemical engineering and materials science, university of california, one shields. The glass transition temperature tg increases with increasing concentration of pcbm. Aug 02, 2012 we also introduce a unique pcbm p3ht pcbm trilayer structure where one of the pcbm layers is highly crystalline. The silicon nanoparticles size is between 80 and 100 nm checked by transmission electron microscope tem. The poly3hexylthiophene p3ht and 6,6phenyl c61butyric acid methylester pcbm blends is one of the promising organic solar cell materials. Pcbm can be inferred owing to the resemblance of the two kinds of. Energy level alignment of poly 3hexylthiophene 6,6 phenyl. Absence of structural impact of noble nanoparticles on p3ht. Pcbm doped with various iodine concentrations or doping levels were. A dyesensitized solar cell was assembled by injecting pcbmp3ht solution. Program of the japan science and technology agency, and.
Effect of thermal annealing on the structural, optical and dielectrical properties of. Under resonant conditions, the ordered phase of p3ht with respect to its. Tutorial of the software for grazing incidence xray diffraction gixrd analysis described in dynamics of crystallization and disorder during annealing of p3ht. The blend should be stirred at 40 c in the glove box overnight. The effects of deuterium isotope substitution on conjugated polymer chain stacking of poly3hexylthiophene is studied in this paper experimentally by xray diffraction xrd in combination with gel permeation chromatography and theoretically using density functional theory and quantum molecular.
Photoconductive measurement on the wellstudied p3htpcbm bulk heterjunction system using the dimension photoconductive and peakforce tuna modules. The photovoltaic properties demonstrated that the addition of zno nanoparticles in p3ht. Twelve 4ml vials containing different amounts of nanoparticles were left on a hotplate at 100 c for several hours until the solvent was completely evaporated 23. Especially, the carrier mobility and the light absorption of p3ht. Details of our gi xrd setup and geometry have already been reported 17, 19, 22, 24, 25. Pcbmbased conjugated polymer solar cells by shabnam shambayati b. Pdf characterization and optimization of p3ht and pcbm. Phase diagram of p3htpcbm blends and its implication for the. Pcbm composites for high performance organic solar cells woonhyuk baeka, taesik yoona, hyun ho leeb, yongsang kima,c, a department of nano science and engineering, myongji university, gyeonggi 449728, republic of korea bdepartment of chemical engineering, myongji university, gyeonggi 449728, republic. This study determines that an effective phase separation of the p3ht and pcbm caused by thermal annealing achieves a.
Effect of electronacceptor content on the efficiency of. Under resonant conditions, the ordered phase of p3ht with respect to its disordered phase is identified by a a. Pcbm solution was prepared by dispersing 25 mgml of p3ht and pcbm 1. Lewis guignard senior manager, data science cybercube. Roop, justin taylor, a study in conjugated polymers. Xray diffraction analyses revealed that the diffraction peaks shift to higher angles when incorporating the zno in the p3ht. Spv features are assigned to states at the polymer. The spacing along the ring direction is too disordered to give a welldefined 001 peak. We also introduce a unique pcbmp3htpcbm trilayer structure where one of the pcbm layers is highly crystalline. Program at the office of naval research n000140811175 are also. Pcbm films and was attributed to the edgeon arrangement of the 100 plane.
Effects of bromination of poly3hexylthiophene on the performance. P3ht crystals are anisotropic, often appearing as long needlelike structures. Highefficiency and airstable p3ht based polymer solar cells with a new nonfullerene acceptor. Published on mar 9, 2011 tutorial of the software for grazing incidence xray diffraction gixrd analysis described in dynamics of crystallization and disorder during annealing of p3ht. Characterization and optimization of p3ht and pcbm blends for photoabsorption. The observed tg defines the operating window for the thermal annealing and explains the longterm instability of both the morphology and the photovoltaic performance of the p3ht pcbm solar cells. The nature of main inplane skeleton raman modes cc and cc stretch of poly3hexylthiophene p3ht in pristine and its blend thin films with 6,6phenylc61butyric acid methyl ester pcbm is studied by resonant and nonresonant raman spectroscopy and raman simulations. Grazingincidence xray diffraction and rocking scans have quantified the. Pcbm film according to the annealing temperature to find the changes during the thermal annealing process by measuring the optical absorption and xray diffraction.
Figure 2a shows the normalized s 2p peaks containing s 2p32 and s 2p12 obtained from the top surfaces of p3ht. Pdf the influence of substrate and top electrode on the. Investigations of thermally induced morphology in p3ht. Pcbm blend based photo organic field effect transistor.
Xray diffraction xrd and transmission electron microscopy tem measurements show that ordering of p3ht plays a key role in optimizing the photovoltaic performance. The observed tg defines the operating window for the thermal annealing and explains the longterm instability of both the morphology and the photovoltaic performance of the p3htpcbm solar cells. Effect of the additional electron acceptor in hybrid zno. The solution was stirred at 80 c for 10 min and overnight at 50 c.
Investigations of thermally induced morphology in p3htpcbm. Pcb is a free and opensource software suite for electronic design automation eda for printed circuit boards pcb layout. Pdf characterization and optimization of p3ht and pcbm blends. Here, we examined the changes in the morphology of p3ht.
Holmes, jing zhao, lilian chang, steven kawula, john d. Pcbm surface and this is consistent with the raman observation. The fluorescence intensity of c60php3ht1,2,3,4 is found to be dramatically quenched compared to that of the p3ht and p3htc60 1. Enhanced crystallinity and film retention of p3ht thinfilms. An organic solar cell osc or plastic solar cell is a type of photovoltaic that uses organic electronics, a branch of electronics that deals with conductive organic polymers or small organic molecules, for light absorption and charge transport to produce electricity from sunlight by the photovoltaic effect.
It is demonstrated that the natural tendency of regioregular p3ht to crystallize is disturbed by the addition of pcbm. Pcbm charge transfer state f3, the selfionized ct state of p3ht f4, and the band gap transition of p3ht f5. It is found that, while no intercalation occurs in p3ht crystals, amorphous portions of p3ht and mdmoppv contain significant concentrations of pcbm, calling. After formation of active layer, sample was annealed at 110 c for 30 min. There is initially mixing of the amorphous pcbm into the p3ht, but it is followed by rapid cold crystallization at the crystalline pcbm layer that depletes the pcbm in the p3ht layer. Molecular weight dependence of the morphology in p3ht. Absence of structural impact of noble nanoparticles on. Opticallytunable organic semiconductor heterojunction p3ht. The photocurrent and its spatial distribution is clearly resolved, reflecting fibrillar structure in the material image size 1 um. Investigations of thermally induced morphology in p3ht pcbm thin films. Flexible dyesensitized solar cell based on pcbmp3ht. Xray diffraction gixd patterns acquired on 150 nm thick. Influences of thermal annealing on p3htpcbm interfacial.
It is the most efficient fullerene derivate based donoracceptor copolymer so far5,6. Deuteration as a means to tune crystallinity of conducting. Pcbmtio x samples without al electrode were annealed at 90c for 10 minutes. Highefficiency and airstable p3htbased polymer solar. Pcbm are significantly improved after the annealing process. Initially pcb was not intended to be a professional layout system but as a tool for. Opticallytunable organic semiconductor heterojunction. Toneyc and yuehlin looa received 30th july 2010, accepted 27th august 2010 doi. From solution properties of p3ht to synthesis of highly functionalized conjugated polymers.
Xray diffraction xrd and transmission electron microscopy tem diffraction measurements show that in the considered blends, ordering of p3ht plays a key role in understanding the pvperformance. Phase diagram of p3htpcbm blends and its implication for. They have been used as antistatic coatings, in sensors 2, 3, thermoelectrics 4, 5, optoelectronic devices, etc. Phenylc 61butyricacidmethyl ester, 60pcbm, 99% scaleup grade pcbm. Enhanced charge separation in ternary p3htpcbmcuins 2. Grazingincidence wideangle xray diffraction showed that the spacing of the 100 planes of p3ht increased with increasing mw, while the. Pc 61 bm photoactive layer coated without a tio x layer was used as a reference cell. Aug 19, 20 characterization and optimization of p3ht and pcbm blends for photoabsorption. Pcbm solution was prepared by dispersing 25 mgml of p3ht. Prior to spin coating, pass the mixture through a 0. Pcbm film according to the thermal annealing temperature to find the changes during the annealing process by measuring the optical absorption, atomic force microscope and xray diffraction. Auag nps solutions, amount of nps from the asreceived solution, and p3ht. Correlating the scattered intensities of p3ht and pcbm to the current densities of polymer solar cellswz enrique d. Pcbm and, to second order, the extent of outofplane p3ht pstacking.
Effect of thermal annealing on the structural, optical and. Polymerfullerene mixing in organic solar cells nist. Influence of composition and thermal annealing on photovoltaic properties ochai oklobia a thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirement of staffordshire university for the degree of doctor of philosophy february 2016. Pcbm composites for high performance organic solar cells woonhyuk baeka, taesik yoona, hyun ho leeb, yongsang kima,c, a department of nano science and engineering, myongji university, gyeonggi 449728, republic of korea. The effects of thermal annealing on the interfacial properties of poly3hexylthiophene p3ht6,6phenyl c 61 butyric acid methyl ester pcbm and on the charge dynamics in p3ht. The influence of substrate and top electrode on the crystallization dynamics of p3ht. Emyr macdonaldb amasdar institute of science and technology, abu dhabi, uae bschool of physics and astronomy, cardiff university, queens buildings, the parade, cardiff cf243aa, uk abstract atomic force microscopy afm and grazing incidence xray diffraction.
The nature of inplane skeleton raman modes of p3ht and their. Investigations of thermally induced morphology in p3htpcbm thin films. Measured xrd spectra of bulk a p3ht and b pcbm powders at. The photo absorption spectrum and the xray diffraction pattern of the 11%. Most organic photovoltaic cells are polymer solar cells.876 7 618 687 2 245 1271 316 201 642 1242 785 900 790 843 167 1289 355 1386 249 1302 357 967 1133 927 1232 84 1533 718 1315 1244 224 338 976 518 784 249 588 305 1026 778